City which hosted Turkmenchay Treaty -RESEARCH

City which hosted Turkmenchay Treaty -RESEARCH
# 14 November 2023 09:57 (UTC +04:00)

APA presents an article entitled "City which hosted Turkmenchay Treaty" written by Mahammad Rahmanifar from the series of "Know South Azerbaijan" project

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Miyana is one of the cities of the East Azerbaijan province. The city is located 175 kilometers from Tabriz, which is considered the center of the province. The city of Miyana is located in the center of the district (shahristan) of Miyana and is surrounded by smaller cities and towns such as Achachi, Ag Kend, Turk, Turkmenchay, Garma, Uch-Tepe, Gyzyl Ozen, Kendivan, located in this area.

Among these names, both in the north and south of Azerbaijan, Turkmenchay may attract the most attention. In 1828, in the village of Turkmenchay, Miyana district, the Turkmenchay Peace Treaty was concluded, which changed the fate of Azerbaijan and divided it into two parts. The historic building where this treaty was signed has been demolished. But it is noteworthy that one of the streets in this village is named after Abbas Mirza.

(The place where the Turkmenchay Treaty was concluded. This building has now been demolished)

According to the 2017 census, the population of Miyana district is 182,848. The vast majority of the city's population speaks Azerbaijani. Most of them are Shia Muslims, the minority are Sunnis.

On the origin of the toponym Miyana

The city of Miyana is surrounded from the north and south by the Bozgush and Gaflanti mountain ranges (the place where the Gaflants live). The names of the rivers flowing in the region (Gyzyl Ozen, Guruchay, Garmachay, Bulanlygchay, Aydogmushchay, Turkmenchay, Achichay and others) are Turkic.

About the history of the city of Miyana

Some historical monuments found in the city, including a mountain goat statue, are estimated to be 7,000 years old. However, it is not easy to talk about the ancient history of the city, since comprehensive historical research and archaeological excavations have not been carried out on its territory. Undoubtedly, the history of this city and the region in which it is located is in many ways similar to the history of neighboring regions, and evidence of the existence of ancient Urartu, Media and other civilizations can be found there.

Muslim travelers and geographers usually described Miyana as a small but prosperous and well-maintained city. The same conclusions can be drawn from the works of Western travelers and diplomats who visited Miyana later.

Historical sights of Miyana

Maiden Bridge

This historical bridge was built on the Gizil Ozan River on the Zanjan-Miyana highway. The exact date of construction of the bridge is not known. Archaeologists believe that the bridge's foundation dates back to the pre-Islamic period. However, in terms of its characteristics and architecture, the monument dates back to the 13th century. But according to the marble inscription made on the middle part of the bridge's foundation, this bridge was repaired during the Safavid era in the 15th century.

This bridge was repaired several times after being damaged, including during the time of the founder of the Turkic Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar. However, the wound inflicted on the bridge in 1946 never healed!

In 1946, when the Tehran army launched an attack to destroy the National Government of Azerbaijan, brave soldiers were forced to blow up this bridge to slow down the advance of the Tehran army and strengthen their position in the Gaflanti Mountains. The Turks of Southern Azerbaijan still revere Seyid Jafar Pishevari, the leader and founder of the National Government of Azerbaijan, as their national spiritual leader. This was the year during which the language, history, culture, and existence of the Turks of South Azerbaijan were protected at the state level.

(Seyid Jafar Pishevari, founder and prime minister of the National Government of Azerbaijan)

The people of Miyana, like the people living in other regions of Southern Azerbaijan, played a big role in the creation and existence of the National Government of Azerbaijan. Thus, this deep wound in the heart of the Maiden Bridge represents a wound in the heart of all Turks of South Azerbaijan. From this point of view, this destroyed bridge is different from all other bridges in South Azerbaijan. This bridge was destroyed, but it is still alive in the souls of the Turks of South Azerbaijan! Just like the historical Khudaferin Bridge on the Araz River!

Maiden Tower

The Maiden Tower, built of brick on a mountain 2 km from the Maiden Bridge, was built as a strategic military fortress. This fortress consists of three parts; the command headquarters was located on its third floor. Like the Maiden Bridge, the Maiden Tower is believed to have been built in the 13th century. According to some sources, the foundation of the fortress was laid in the pre-Islamic period. This tower has two entrances, is surrounded by a three-meter wall, and a stone inscription is made above one of the entrances. However, due to erosion caused by natural phenomena, this inscription cannot be read.

(No measures have been taken to protect the Maiden Tower)

The Maiden Tower is surrounded on three sides by rocks. There are tanks and wells inside the tower. This tower was destroyed during the reign of Shah Abbas Safawi, due to the fact that at that time the Azerbaijanis opposed the Safavid policies. It should be noted that Shah Abbas Safevi’s transfer of the capital of the state from Azerbaijan to Isfahan, his employment of Armenians, Georgians, and Persians in the palace, as well as the removal of the Kyzylbash Turks from the palace greatly outraged the Azerbaijanis.

Stone castle

Azerbaijan, periodically subjected to attacks by enemies, is considered a country of fortresses. As we have already said, the region where the city of Miyana is located, thanks to its impassable mountains and rivers, is considered one of the strategic regions of Azerbaijan. That is why there are many historical castles in this region.

(Stone Castle)

The stone castle, like the Maiden Tower, is located a short distance from the valley of the Gyzyl Ozen River. Deep ravines and large rocks turned this structure into an impregnable fortress. The entire castle grounds are located on solid rock and can only be reached by a staircase carved into the wall.

Miyana, where Azerbaijan lives

As we already mentioned, this city was historically an Azerbaijani city, and almost all the names of places, mountains, rivers, buildings, villages and settlements around the city were Turkic. Although the city's residents are Shia and Sunni, they are united by the fact that they are Azerbaijanis.

Today, a certain part of the residents of Miyana, especially young people, do not forget that they are Azerbaijanis. Today, the youth of Miyana, as part of the youth of Southern Azerbaijan, is working to preserve their language, history, and culture. It is safe to say that the young generation of South Azerbaijan is the most conscious generation of this land in recent centuries.

The Azerbaijani and Turkic spirit is maintained in Miyan not only through language and identity but also through the preservation of Azerbaijani traditions. These people make it clear at their weddings, funerals, and holidays that they are Azerbaijanis.

Mahammad Rahmanifar

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